Chypre Coty 1917.

During the ensuing years up till 1917 when Francois Coty introduced his famous Chypre perfume, many perfumers worked the themes of labdanum, bergamot and oakmoss into their compositions but it was not until his classic creation came on the market that the word "Chypre" became associated with a family of perfumes that displayed, at their heart, a rich , warm, earthy, mossy, resinous, green bouquet. Coty also drew upon various synthetic chemicals to "enhance" the central Chypre theme.

Following the introduction of his perfume many famous fragrance houses introduced their own unique variations of Chypre.

With the passage of time more and more synthetic ingredients were substituted for naturals which has been the standard pattern in the commerical perfume field. Many modern chypres contain very little if any of the core accord of labdanum, bergamot, and oakmoss or any of the other natural absolutes and essential oils which originally were part of a fine chypre composition. The following natural Chypre accord built around Bergamot, Labdanum and Oakmoss should serve as a good beginning formula for those who wish to create a lovely perfume.

Hystory Chypre perfume


Prior to the Crusades, their was considerable trade between Cyprus, Italy, Turkey, Greece, Egypt and Persian countries and as aromatics in the form of unguents, incense, etc were considered highly desirable items of commerce, it is likely that Cyprus had special creations that were valued by its neighbors.

Roman Empire.
1.Roman Empire
There was at the time of the Roman Empire a perfume that bore the name of Chypre which was composed of labdanum, Turkish storax and calamus. The production of this perfume continued in Italy through the Middle Ages with a variety of natural aromatics used.

2. Crusader's
Chypre is the French for Cyprus and comes from when the Crusader's invaded in the 13th century and brought back a material called labdanum from the sticky buds of the Cistus bush. It has a heavy, sweet, balsamic type of odour but when blended with other base notes like sandalwood, patchouli and oakmoss, made a very popular base.

3.Eau de Chypre
Soon after Richard the 1st(Richard the Lion Hearted) took the title of the King of Cyprus in 1191, a Eau de Chypre perfume appeared in France which was said to consist of of extracts various gums, resins and spices in a rosewater base.

4.oyselets de chypre
In 17th and 18th century France a new form of Chypre appeared in the form of a incense know as 'oyselets de chypre. The various gums, resins, herbs and spices were ground into a powder and mixed with gum tragacanth and fashioned into the form of birds which were then burned as we burn incense today. Oakmoss at this time was added to the basic formula which are key ingredients in the modern forms of Chypre.
Francois Coty.

5.Coty Chypre (1917)
The chypre that started it all, Francois Coty's Chypre was so named as an homage to the scents that perfumed the island of Cyprus — a combination of woods, moss and citrus. Henceforth, thanks to this groundbreaking perfume, all perfumes in the chypre category contained some combination of a sparkling citrus note (usually bergamot), floral heart notes, and rested on bases of vetiver, oakmoss, labdanum and patchouli.
Chypre by Coty is the fisrt chypre fragrance created by Francois Coty in 1917. Chypre is the name of the island Cyprus in French, where the goddess of beauty and love, Venus, was born.

6.Chypre Perfume
Chypre is the name of a family (or concept) of perfumes that are characterised by an accord composed of citrus top- notes, a floral middle, and a mossy-animalic base-note derived from oak moss and musks. Chypre perfumes may be modified by other notes such as patchouli (most often), vetiver, labdanum, ambergris and sandalwood oil.


Modern Medical Uses of Some Plants of the Qu'ran and the Bible

Holy Pharmacy
Modern Medical Uses of Some Plants of the Qu'ran and the Bible Its Relation to Biodiversity American Center Damascus, Syria - July 2000 Holy Pharmacy Modern Medical Uses of Some Plants of the Qu'ran and the Bible Its Relation to Biodiversity Lytton John Musselman

Rock Rose (Cistus creticus).
Both the Qu'ran(1) and the Bible(2) include plants that have long been used for medicine. The hadith and western folk botany are full of additional references to these plants as well. Only recently has the efficacy of these same plants been documented with modern science. I have selected just a few plants, well known in bilad-al Sham, for discussion. These include garlic (Allium sativum), rock rose (Cistus creticus), gourd or colocynth (Citrullus colocynthis), tamarisk or tamarix (Tamarix aphylla), myrrh (several species of Commiphora), mandrake (Mandragora officinarum), black cummin (Nigella sativa), and pomegranate (Punica granatum).

Plants of the Bible and the Qu'ran have been one of my research efforts for many years, a fascination that has been enhanced by living and working in Jordan and Syria. There are about 125 plants in the Bible and about twenty mentioned in the Qu'ran. Of course, allowances have to be made for the inclusion of many other species which are not explicitly stated when "fruits," "trees," "thorns," and "weeds" are discussed.

Rock Rose (Cistus Creticus)

In my last lecture, I spoke at length about rockrose, or Balm of Gilead. Because it may be confused with some of the other plants used for balm, especially myrrh, I want to refer to it again and draw upon some recent research.

Cistus creticus : pink  and Cistus salvifolius white flowers.
Together in same area(Sises Northen Crete).
Two species of Cistus are common in Syria, C. creticus and C. salvifolius. They are easily distinguished by their flower color. The large pink flowers of C. creticus and the slightly smaller but equally beautiful white flowers of C. salvifolius appear in May. On a hot day, the fragrant resin of the plants is obvious. Upon closer examination, you can see the numerous hairs that cover the leaves and young stems of both species. The resin will stick to your hands if you collect leaves.

Cistus' resin is fragrant, as noted, and has been used for millennia to produce an incense. Even today, the resin is collected in parts of Greece. It can be harvested in a variety of ways. One ancient method is to comb the hair of goats who graze in plant communities where Cistus is abundant.
Another is by dragging a rake with long, leather tines across the shrubs at the hottest time of day and then removing the resin when it is dry(14). To my knowledge, it does not have any widespread use among modern Arabs.

The resin is also used for medicine, as a balm that can reduce inflammation of the skin. Recent research on the biochemistry of the plant has shown the efficacy of compounds in the plant for dermatological disorders(15). Recent research in Turkey shows that, of the seven plants used as folk remedies for ulcers, the one with the greatest efficacy was C. salvifolius(16).


Eating and Healing: Traditional Food as Medicine Chapter 16 Aspects of Food Medicine and Ethnopharmacology in Morocco (Mohamed Eddouks) Page 359.
"The holy Qur'an and Hadith include plants that have long been used for medicine.
About twenty of the edible plants mentioned in the Qur'an appear in the context of medicines. They include garlic (Ailutm sativum), rock rose (Cistus creticus), colocyrnth (Citrullus colocynthis), tamarisk or tamarix (Tamarix aphylla), myrrh (Commi phara spp), mandrake (Mandragora officinarum), black cummin (Nigella sativa) and pomegranate (Punica granaium). In the Qur'an the olive fruit is mentioned us a condiment (Danne et al, 1993) Ginger's present-day use is as a flavoring for drinks, which is also mentioned (Faraj. 1995)."